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The purpose of this publication is to explain observed fire procedures used by units in combat and to explain how observed fire training is conducted in peacetime to meet combat requirements. The material presented herein applies to both nuclear and nonnuclear warfare. This publication discusses observed fire procedures, with the firing unit using both manual and automated fire direction techniques. The observed fire procedures are usually the same; only those instances in which differences occur are indicated, Digital and automated observed fire procedures are discussed in the appendixes. This publication covers only technical observed fire procedures, The operational and organizational aspects of employing observers are discussed in other publications, particularly in the FM 6-20 series manuals. The target audience for this publication is the field artillery fire support team (FIST) personnel and other fire support observers, to include aerial fire support observers (AFSOs), combat observation/lasing teams (COLTs), infantry scouts, and personnel who may become involved in rear area combat operations. This publication is fully compatible with the Army’s AirLand Battle doctrine and is consistent with current joint and combined doctrine.